Todo lo que necesitas saber sobre la dieta saciante

Jorge Carlos Fernández Francés El Sardinero
Jorge Carlos Fernández Francés El Sardinero

Reducir las calorías para perder peso puede dejarlo hambriento e insatisfecho, y posiblemente incluso lo suficientemente miserable como para abandonar una alimentación saludable. Pero, ¿qué pasaría si hubiera un plan de alimentación diseñado específicamente para brindar saciedad y satisfacción para que lo sigas? Ese es el quid de la dieta saciante.

La dieta saciante combina los alimentos que se sabe que te llenan (verduras, frutas, proteínas magras, granos integrales y algunas grasas saludables) más el compuesto de pimiento picante llamado capsaicina. He aquí un vistazo a cómo funciona el plan, si es bueno para perder peso y qué podrías comer si lo intentas.

¿Qué es la dieta saciante?
La dieta saciante se inspiró en una investigación realizada en la Université Laval en la ciudad de Quebec. Los científicos analizan a 69 hombres obesos que fueron asignados aleatoriamente a la dieta saciante oa una dieta de control alta en carbohidratos. Ambos grupos perdieron peso y recortaron sus cinturas, pero el grupo de la dieta saciante perdió más y peso, y era más probable que siguieran la dieta. Los investigadores que crearon la dieta querían encontrar un perfil de alimentación que fuera saludable, saciante y no restrictivo, con la idea de que las personas quisieran seguir con ella a largo plazo. Este efecto, dicen los autores, podría lograrse con alimentos saludables diseñados para brindarle plenitud y satisfacción.

¿Cómo funciona la dieta saciante?
Las personas que siguen la dieta saciante deben comer tres comidas al día, y cada comida contiene 500 o menos calorías de los alimentos de la lista de alimentos. Si bien se permite comer más, la idea es que estarás tan satisfecho que no seguirás más.

Los investigadores que crean la dieta saciante dicen que deben apuntar a la siguiente combinación de macronutrientes en cada comida:

20-25 por ciento de proteína
45–50 por ciento de carbohidratos
30-35 por ciento de grasa
Los alimentos que se dieron a las personas que hicieron dieta en el estudio fueron de bajo índice glucémico. Los alimentos que tienen un índice glucémico bajo incluyen carbohidratos que tienen menos efecto sobre el azúcar en la sangre que los azúcares simples, que aumentan el en la sangre rápidamente. Los carbohidratos de bajo índice glucémico tienden a ser complejos, como los carbohidratos de las verduras sin almidón, los cereales integrales, los frutos secos, las legumbres y algunas frutas.

Si bien la dieta saciante tiene proporciones de macronutrientes bastante equilibradas y no se considera un plan alto en proteínas o bajo en carbohidratos, muchos de los alimentos en la dieta saciante se ajustan a una forma mediterránea de comer. También hay elementos de Volumetrics, otro plan de alimentación establecido que se enfoca en frutas y verduras abundantes, que están llenas de agua y tienen una densidad de energía más baja (menos calorías) que otros alimentos.

¿Cuáles son los beneficios potenciales de la dieta saciante?
En la dieta saciante, comerás frutas, verduras, cereales integrales, proteínas magras, legumbres y, lo que la hace especial, pimientos picantes. En última instancia, este es un enfoque equilibrado. La dieta saciante fue creada por «un equipo muy respetado de investigadores de saciedad», dice Barbara J. Rolls, PhD , autora de Volumetrics Diet y directora del Laboratorio para el Estudio del Comportamiento Ingestivo Humano en el Colegio de Salud de Penn State. y Desarrollo Humano en University Park, Pensilvania. “Creo que debemos apuntar a una dieta de alta saciedad, y esto se ve saludable y se ajusta a las pautas dietéticas”. Si bien la dieta saciante se compone de alimentos saludables, el objetivo de la dieta es promover el control del apetito para la pérdida de peso a largo plazo.

¿Puede la dieta saciante ayudarte a perder peso?
La dieta se centra en alimentos bajos en calorías, como frutas, verduras, proteínas magras y cereales integrales. “Cuando se reduce la densidad de energía, se obtiene una mayor porción de alimentos [por la misma cantidad de calorías]”, dice el Dr. Rolls, y agrega que las personas tienden a comer un volumen constante de alimentos por día. En última instancia, eso significa que está sirviendo su porción típica de comida, pero ahora con menos calorías.

Además, la dieta saciante promueve alimentos que contienen una combinación de fibra, grasas y proteínas, lo que hará (y mantendrá) a alguien más lleno que una comida rica en carbohidratos refinados. Recomendar este desglose equilibrado de macronutrientes (proteínas, carbohidratos y grasas) tiene sentido y lo aleja del territorio de las dietas de moda. “Lo que recomiendan es lo que los expertos en nutrición han estado defendiendo durante años”, dice Keri Gans, dietista y nutricionista registrada en la ciudad de Nueva York.

El elemento único de la dieta, como se menciona, es la adición de pimientos picantes. Los pimientos picantes contienen capsaicina , que puede mejorar el metabolismo de las grasas, hacer que queme algunas calorías (sin embargo, no más que la cantidad de los pimientos) e incluso puede ayudar a controlar la insulina, todo lo cual puede contribuir a la pérdida de peso, según indica la investigación. Sin embargo, la capsaicina no es una varita mágica, y agregar pimientos picantes a una comida no significa que perderá peso automáticamente: el contenido calórico de esa comida es importante. “No hay un solo alimento que pueda decir que puede comer y que se ocupará de su pérdida de peso”, dice Gans. Además, es posible que no le gusten los pimientos picantes. 
¿Qué alimentos puedes comer en la dieta saciante?
Si sigues la dieta, comerás al día:

Cuatro porciones de frutas enteras.
Cuatro porciones de verduras enteras.
Cinco porciones de cereales integrales ricos en fibra (al menos cuatro gramos [g] de fibra por porción)
Proteína magra (4 onzas [oz] de pescado, carne o aves, huevos, leche y productos lácteos, nueces y semillas o tofu) por comida
Además, seguirán estas pautas generales:

Coma al menos un refrigerio por día.
Coma una comida de legumbres (frijoles, lentejas, guisantes secos) por semana.
Consuma una cantidad moderada de grasas monoinsaturadas y poliinsaturadas.
Coma más pimientos picantes.
¿Cómo es el valor de las comidas de una semana en la dieta saciante?
He aquí un vistazo a cómo armar un plan de comidas de dieta saciante. Hasta cierto punto, puede elegir alimentos según sus preferencias.

día 1
Desayuno Avena con bayas , huevos revueltos y claras de huevo

Almuerzo Sándwich de pavo fresco hecho con pan integral, además de una ensalada y una manzana

Cena salteado de tofu con arroz integral y pimientos picantes*

Merienda Peras enlatadas con requesón

Diámetro 2
Desayuno Revuelto de huevos, queso y verduras con salsa picante* y una guarnición de bayas

Almuerzo Ensalada grande con camarones cubiertos con aderezo de vinagreta y una naranja

Cena Filete de salmón, brócoli, arroz integral

Snack Manzanas y mantequilla de almendras

Día 3
Desayuno Bagel integral, mantequilla de maní y plátano

Almuerzo Sándwich de pollo asado con sopa de verduras y frutas mixtas

Cena Fajitas de res con verduras, pimientos picantes* y tortillas integrales con manzana de postre

Snack Verduras y humus

día 4
Desayuno Cereal integral con leche y nueces encima, además de melón

Almuerzo Ensalada cubierta con pollo, pimientos picantes* y garbanzos con un panecillo integral y una manzana

Cena Pasta integral con salsa de tomate, brócoli y pavo molido

Snack Yogur y bayas

5 de diámetro
Revuelto de tofu de desayuno con verduras y salsa picante*, tostadas y rodajas de mango

Almuerzo Pollo con pepinos y tomates, además de pita integral y tzatziki

Solomillo de cerdo con quinoa y coliflor asada

Snack Mezcla de frutos secos y kiwi

día 6
Harina de avena para el desayuno cubierto con bayas y nueces, y yogur

Almuerzo Ensalada de farro con verduras troceadas y pollo, con un melocotón

Dinner Pepper relleno de pavo molido y salsa picante*, más una ensalada

Snack pera y loncha de queso

día 7
Desayuno Cereal integral con leche, naranja y huevos duros

Almuerzo Hamburguesa de frijoles negros con queso y salsa picante* en un pan integral con ensalada y manzana

Cena Pollo a la parrilla con vainas de guisantes, arroz con coliflor y un panecillo integral

Merienda Fresas y yogur

¿Cuáles son los pros y los contras de la dieta saciante?
Uno de los principales pros de la dieta saciante es su método: la satisfacción. «La clave para la pérdida de peso sostenible es estar satisfecho», dice Lisa Young, PhD, RDN , de la ciudad de Nueva York, autora de Finalmente lleno, finalmente delgado . “Puedes hacer cualquier cosa para perder peso a corto plazo, pero no conservarás esa pérdida si vuelves a las andadas”, dice.

La dieta saciante recomienda varias porciones al día de frutas, verduras y cereales integrales, alimentos de origen vegetal que están repletos de fibra para retardar la digestión y ayudar a mantenerte satisfecho. Las dietas basadas en plantas funcionan de la misma manera, y la investigación, como un estudio publicado en la edición de mayo-junio de 2021 de Missouri Medicine, descubrió que promueven la pérdida de peso y reducen significativamente el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas y otros resultados negativos para la salud.

Para las personas que tienen problemas para apegarse a las tres comidas al día, la dieta saciante puede ser atractiva porque fomenta los refrigerios saludables. Demasiado tiempo entre comidas, especialmente el almuerzo y la cena, puede aumentar tanto su hambre que termine comiendo en exceso, dice el Dr. Young. Un refrigerio inteligente puede mantener el hambre bajo control. Uno que te llene tendrá algo de fibra y proteína, como una manzana y mantequilla de maní o verduras y hummus.

El objetivo de la dieta saciante es estar lleno y satisfecho, pero la dieta no se enfoca en comer conscientemente y reconocer las señales de hambre, y esa es una oportunidad perdida, dice Young. Ella recomienda que hagas eso de todos modos, especialmente bajando la velocidad cuando venga y controlándote a ti mismo antes de agarrar segundos.

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